A Well-organized and Efficient Team Increases the Quality of Professional Activity

Franjić S

Independent Researcher, Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Interdisciplinarity is a type of academic collaboration in which experts from different academic disciplines work towards common goals. Interdisciplinary programs are usually developed from the belief that traditional disciplines are not able to solve certain problems on their own. Many scientists believe that humanity's health problems can be solved through interdisciplinary approaches. This paper considers some issues in the study of cancer which represents a major global health problem.

Key Words

Interdisciplinarity; Trend; Cancer; Teams; Health


Cancer is a major public health concern universally, comparing for approximately ten million death around the world in 2020 (approximately one in six deaths is recorded for cancer) [1]. In spite of progresses in cancer either in hone or inquire about, in 2020, cancer determination and treatment was adversely affected by the COVID-19 widespread. Due to the rise of the definitely spreading virus, a few healthcare centers confronted closure, and numerous had to as it were concede patients affected by COVID-19 to control the condition. In this manner, determination and treatment for numerous suspected and/or affirmed cancer cases were held up, which might grant rise to a short-term brief diminish in cancer occurrence rate likely taken after by a significant rise in cancer cases with development stages and within the mortality rate.

Cancer is a major public health issue which can affect each person [2]. Around the world, cancer is one of the driving causes of mortality, horribleness, and diminished quality of life. Also, frequency of cancers is developing, and it would be the most source of burden on both patients and social orders, especially in low- to medium-resource nations. A add up to of one-fifth of generally cancers can be anticipated by immunization against oncogenic contaminations. In this way, national immunization programs against infections such as HPV offer assistance avoid cancers and are respected as the essential level of anticipation utilizing immunotherapy. On the other hand, current guidelines of care have fizzled to do much for numerous cancer patients; consequently, a unused restorative road like immunotherapy is required to make strides the care of cancer patients. With respect to current status of cancers around the world counting impressive rate, dismalness, mortality rate, and lacking of current mainstays of cancer administration counting surgical approaches, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, immunotherapy holds awesome guarantee in combating cancers.


As is the trend in numerous disciplines, investigate bunches are drawing nearer cancer utilizing intrigue approaches to pick up a more total understanding of the disease as well as to recognize prescient biomarkers at atomic, person, and populace levels [3]. Pathology and the study of disease transmission are central to these aspirations, and work together toward the common objective of illustrating malady etiology and movement. Advanced cancer science inquire about is progressively centered on recognizable proof of hereditary heterogeneity through atomic pathology, but it remains critical to contextualize person atomic profiles inside the individual’s lifetime natural exposures (“exposome”), coming about quality: environment interactions, and infection direction. Moreover, population-level patterns assembled through epidemiological models can be coordinates with atomic pathologic information to illustrate etiology at the same time at molecular, person, and populace levels. Recognizable proof of patterns and affiliations driving cancers on a populace level give opportunity for prescient markers, screening openings, and helpful progresses with a more noteworthy affect. It is our trust that in making pathology available to disease transmission experts, and the study of disease transmission open to pathologists, patterns that are critical in populaces of cells and of individuals can be recognized and acted upon with more noteworthy recurrence.

Past this, the two areas work more advantageously. It is progressively clear that cancers, such as prostate, colon, or breastcancer, are not single diseases but or maybe are comprised of numerous subtypes characterized by molecular pathology and histology. Patho-epidemiology joins neurotic and tumor biomarker information for people analyzed with cancer or other conditions that are members in well-defined epidemiological thinks about. A more detailed classification of tumors can be accomplished by including atomic comment based on biomarker appraisal in pathology examples from patients in existing epidemiologic cohorts to existing clinical information accessible in these databases. On the other side, pathology considers are improved by the standards of epidemiological strategies to characterize ponder populaces and plan. Patho the study of disease transmission is interestingly determined from the interaction between examiners in these two disciplines.

Cell Culture

In spite of noteworthy propels in investigative and helpful strategies for cancer, 2D cell culture remains an fundamental and advancing competency in this fast-paced industry [4]. From essential monolayer societies and useful measures to more later and ever-advancing cell-based cancer intercessions, 2D cell culture plays a pivotal part in cancer determination, prognosis, and treatment. Inquire about and improvement in this field call for a awesome bargain of optimization, whereas the heterogenous nature of cancer itself requests personalized accuracy for its mediation. In this way, 2D cell culture is perfect, giving a exceedingly versatile and responsive stage, where aptitudes can be sharpened and methods adjusted. Moreover, it is ostensibly the foremost proficient, conservative, and economical technique accessible to analysts and clinicians alike.

The express “cell culture” itself alludes to the support of disaggregated cells in vitro, that's , exterior the human body. In differentiate to this, the term “organ culture” relates to intaglio tissues. The express “tissue culture” can be utilized to examine both. Other common terms in cell culture incorporate “primary,” “immortalized,” “passage,” and/or “subculture.” A essential cell culture is the starting culture, and it is this culture that experiences numerous subcultures or passages (both terms have comparable meaning) to make a cell line. Cell lines can be either “finite” or “continuous,” with ceaseless cell lines being “transformed.” The application of cell lines, that's , in vitro cell-based societies, is broadly utilized in a assortment of diverse areas inside therapeutic investigate, particularly in both essential cancer inquire about and medicate revelation. Cancer cell lines are valuable as they give an uncertain source of biological material for numerous distinctive exploratory purposes. In the event that refined accurately, approved and affirmed cell lines, that's , cell lines whose character, immaculateness, sterility, and usefulness are affirmed, can hold the hereditary properties of the cancer they come from, making them basic devices in cancer science. Cell societies can be one of two types—adherentor suspension. Adherent cells develop through connection and are anchoragedependent. Adherent cells are ordinarily determined from tissues of organs. On the other hand, suspension cells don't require connection for development and are anchorage-independent cells, drifting in culture medium in “suspension.” Most suspension cells are separated from blood, with a little number inferred from tissues like hepatocytes or intestinal cells.


Cancer impacts nearly all aspects of life; being included with a constant infection and taking distinctive medications uncover patients to a assortment of antagonistic impacts and complications, whereas the constant nature of the illness – in most cases – other than the instability around the disease result acts as a capable stressor and incline patients to mental issues and mental complications [1]. In a greater scale, cancer impacts families, healthcare framework, and social orders. Patients who ought to go on long irregular debilitated takes off some of the time confront work rejection and unemployment, which in turn affect the financial status of patients and families. In a bigger scale, the financial status of social orders is influenced due to the cancer-related therapeutic care costs.

In expansion, cancer is related with diverse restorative conditions, counting immune system diseases, innate blunders of resistance (also known as essential immunodeficiency infections), and diseases. In conditions like spread of a recently risen contamination, diverse designs are conceivable in how incessant diseases, including cancer, respond to the epidemic. For occasion, within the COVID-19 widespread, questions raised almost whether COVID-19 seem result in cancer movement or appearance of cancer in undiscovered quiet. This impact was ascribed to the enactment of pro-inflammatory and pro-tumor arbiters and signaling pathways.

Putting together, cancer itself may be a complex issue that remains to be completely settled, whereas diverse components in affiliation with cancer might assist complicate the condition. Intrigue approaches and collaboration of researchers from diverse areas have been put forward as a potential apparatus to combat cancer and its related complications.


Immunotherapy makes a difference health-care suppliers anticipate not as it were cancer advancement but moreover its assist movement and cancer-related complications advertising avoidance from cancers at all levels [2]. Tweak of safe reactions in favor of improving tumor cell location and resistant clearance of these cells is what immunotherapy does. In expansion, immunotherapy makes a difference recoup an harmed or totally crushed resistant framework after seriously cancer treatments as happened in seriously chemotherapy plans.

Unremitting aggravation owing to irresistible etiologies or persistent sterile irritation shows up to cause cancers of variable beginnings. Focusing on the safe framework to control diseases known as causes of variable cancer as well as conditions related with persistent aggravation (i.e., autoimmunities) comes about in a emotional diminish within the rate of cancers. This application of immunotherapy avoids cancers at the primary level. Interests, not all subjects with inclining incessant irritation state create cancers. For occurrence, the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) causes Kaposi’s sarcoma within the setting of HIV caused by immunodeficiency or drug-induced immunodeficiency. Subsequently, immunotherapeutic approaches avoid the spread of HIV within the community and can be respected as a primordial level of avoidance from cancers. A significant numbers of immunizations and resistant adjuvants as well as monoclonal antibodies are created to combat cancers at essential and primordial stages.


With the phenomenal pace of improvement in science, it is difficult to assume disciplines to stay confined without any associations to others [1]. Interdisciplinarity might be characterized as the integration of distinctive disciplines into one movement with a single primary target; it is around considering and doing past the boundaries and borders between diverse areas of science. As a term, “interdisciplinarity” was born within the twentieth century; by the by, in hone, there are impressions of intrigue works in ancient societies, counting old Greeks, Egyptians, and Mesopotamians, many centuries prior. Be that as it may, different translations of this term were prevailing totally different ages. In expansion, in a few periods of the history, interdisciplinarity was known as an imperative figure in science development, whereas in a few periods, it was moderately dismissed.

“Multidisciplinary,” “interdisciplinary,” and “transdisciplinary” are dynamically being utilized within the writing and in logical communications, in spite of the fact that are not clearly characterized and in a few cases are erroneously utilized traded. To depict the three terms each in a single recognizable word, multidisciplinary and intrigue may pass on the words added substance and intuitively, individually, whereas all encompassing has been proposed for transdisciplinary. In this way, each of the three terms suggests a particular concept which cannot be utilized traded. In expansion, another term for elaborating the interaction between disciplines is “multiple disciplinary.” It is connected to circumstances with unrevealed or undetermined inclusion of distinctive disciplines.


Interprofessional teams are major vehicles for interprofessional collaboration [5]. The team is an vital setting for collaborative care, and a team attitude is thought to be vital to accomplishing fruitful quiet results. Groups related to arrangement of healthcare have been depicted and characterized in numerous ways. The term multidisciplinary team has been utilized to depict circumstances in which a few experts work on a extend in parallel, but freely. The term intrigue team includes endeavors at integration of information and mastery among experts in arrange to fathom a issue. The term transdisciplinary team has been utilized to allude to the trade of information, abilities, and mastery that rise above conventional disciplinary boundaries.

Characteristics of successful teams have been found to incorporate clear and steady participation; the specialist to oversee their work handle; a compelling objective and course; criticism on team effectiveness; an organizational setting, counting the compensate framework, the data framework, and the instruction framework, that's steady of the team; and the accessibility of master coaching. The United Kingdom Centre for Advancement of Interprofessional Education has created an interprofessional cooperation system which recognizes three ranges that contribute to the quality of interprofessional cooperation: social variables (e.g., control, chain of command, parts), processual variables (e.g., schedules, ceremonies, time), and organizational and relevant variables (e.g., organizational bolster, culture, political issues).

Effective collaboration and team working in healthcare have been found to include the utilize of a number of procedures. These techniques incorporate sharing behavioral wellbeing objectives for the quiet, clarifying parts and workflow, building believe among experts, and fortifying communication strategies. In compelling interprofessional teams, individuals see their parts as critical to the team, have open communication, work out independence (i.e., autonomous basic considering and dynamic cooperation), and have uniformity of assets. The Institute of Medicine (renamed the National Academy of Science) has prescribed that wellbeing experts be prepared to work in intrigue teams and to participate, collaborate, communicate, and coordinated care. Auxiliary strategies of supporting group working have been found to incorporate the utilize of electronic frameworks to encourage closed-loop communication, clusters, and customary group conferences.


For a gather of individuals to gotten to be a team, they must share a common reason, be emphatically committed to the accomplishment of particular errands, and esteem collaboration through which they anticipate to achieve more by their participation [6].

A completely staffed Palliative Care Consultation Team (PCCT), at least, comprises a doctor, an progressed hone nurture, a master’s arranged social laborer, and a chaplain. Other individuals of the PCCT in a perfect world incorporate child life masters, clinicians, nurture care facilitators, domestic care medical caretakers, integrator medication professionals, pharmacologists, rehab advisors, expressive specialists (music/art therapists), and bereavement specialists. All bring involvement in palliative care, share an appreciation for collaboration, and approach their colleagues with lowliness and regard for each discipline’s skill. This mastery incorporates great communication

and interpersonal aptitudes, which brings a biopsychosocial-spiritual approach to the care. At the center of the team’s advancing arrange are the understanding, the patient’s family, and their values, convictions, and needs.

The PCCT capacities in an unexpected way from the conventional multidisciplinary healthcare group. In therapeutic care, groups are depicted as existing along a continuum from unidisciplinary (a few individuals inside a single teach), multidisciplinary (a receptive demonstrate with advertisement hoc enrollment that employments a consultative organize), to intrigue (individuals are distinguished as working together proactively, frequently without shared administration and decision-making specialist), to transdisciplinary (in which individuals make a shared group mission, advantage from part cover, and have coordinates obligations, preparing, and administration.).

In a tertiary intense care educating clinic, groups tend to be basically intrigue, as are numerous palliative care teams. The PCCT frequently capacities some place between intrigue and transdisciplinary structures, conceivably streaming back and forward depending on the errand at hand, and the participation and organize of advancement of the group.

In differentiate to most intrigue and multidisciplinary restorative team models, individuals of a transdisciplinary palliative care team speak to their claim teach as well as the team itself. A well-functioning team can isolate the workload when vital to guarantee all patients/families are seen and referrals reacted to in a convenient way.


There are a few serological discovery instruments for specific tumor biomarkers within the body [1]. Moreover, presentation of biosensors has brought extraordinary guarantees for cancer conclusion. Biosensors work through the discovery and estimation of a natural calculate (such as proteins, nucleic acids, etc.) and after that changing over it to electrical signals to be identified, analyzed, and interpreted to clinical data. Biosensors are categorized into six groups concurring to the strategy that intelligent between explanatory and the location component are interpreted into analyzable data, also known as signal transduction strategy; these categories are optical, attractive, mass, electrochemical, biomechanical, and warm. Biosensors give data around whether the target marker is show in patient’s test and, in case display, how much raised or diminished it is. So, it is conceivable to choose whether the understanding has cancer and is it generous or threatening. In expansion, the estimate of the tumor, its degree or design of movement and/or metastasis, and reaction to treatment might be anticipated. Biosensors are capable of identifying different biomarkers at the same time, which canreduce the time of determination and diminish costs of the determination handle, driving the doctor to a firmer conclusion by giving a profile of different biomarkers. In spite of the focal points of biosensors in cancer determination, metastatic cases stay challenging. It is detailed that almost 60% of cancer cases are analyzed at the metastatic arrange, which decrease the reaction to treatment and the survival rate. Nanotechnology can advance biosensor’s innovation to handle disadvantages and restrictions of cancer symptomatic devices. Application of nanomaterials in making little biosensors leads to optimized cancer marker location, strong signal upgrade, lower costs, as well as high-throughput discovery.

In addition, other than the discovery of biomarkers, solidification of biosensors and nanotechnology is useful in creating cancer imaging gadgets, planning sedate conveyance instruments to boost the reaction to treatment whereas lessening the antagonistic impacts, deciding patient’s forecast, as well as early location of the illness. To draw a conclusion, application of biosensors and nanotechnology in cancer determination, treatment, and forecast reflects benefits of intrigue works, which in this case incorporates material science, chemistry, science, pharmacology, and medication for tending to the challenges in complex issues such as cancer.


Artificial intelligence (AI) is characterized as the application of scientific calculations to reenact human cognitive capacities to handle complicated challenges such as complex organic variations from the norm counting cancer [1]. Machine learning (ML) is known as a subset of AI, in which researchers work on neural networkbased calculations to empower the machine to perform the learning and problem-solving forms as people do. Deep learning (DL) could be a department of ML and points to supply the machine with the human’s brains diverse capacities, counting information handle, empowering the machine to distinguish and recognize images/objects, prepare dialect, and create sedate conveyance, personalized medication, and demonstrative instruments. Propels in AI in later decades have made it a amusement changer in numerous field; therapeutic sciences and healthcare framework are not exemptions. AI has developed as a capable promising device for optimizing conclusion, treatment, and forecast of forecast of infections. Due to the AI’s noticeable picture examination control, restorative imaging administrations, radiology, and pathology are the field significantly influenced by European Society of Radiology (ESR). AI-based machines prepared with a tremendous source of pictures (radiological pictures or obsessive slides) to operate as human brain are strong devices in infection determination due to their capacity to expeditiously survey, assess, compare, recognize contrasts, and report the result. In spite of the fact that radiologist is still keeping their part in picture translation since it isn't worthy to depend 100% on machines, AI can encourage the determination prepare whereas expanding its proficiency. Moreover,

advances in AI have brought guarantees for cancer treatment, either by means of accuracy and personalized medication to select the finest custom fitted treatment for each person understanding or through enabling the medicate plan, disclosure, and repurposing businesses by uncovering atomic intelligent and progressed modeling. AI can predict the malady reaction to treatment, therefore increasing the treatment viability, reducing adverse impacts, and diminishing the term of the treatment whereas driving to distant better outcome. Nextgeneration sequencing (NGS) might be a legitimate device to supply high-throughput datasets for creating exactness pharmaceutical. Moreover, AI is advantageous in surgical medications for cancer by deciding the exact area of the tumor and the most excellent secure surgical extraction border.


In recent decades, teamwork in medicine has become a serious factor in the organization of quality professional activity, but also in the organization of quality leadership. A well-organized and efficient team increases the quality of professional activity, which leads to greater satisfaction of patients and their families, and at the same time lowers the level of stress in healthcare professionals.


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Editorial Information

Article Type

Research Article

Publication history

Received date: May 07, 2024
Accepted date: May 10, 2024
Published date: May 16, 2024


©2024 Franjić S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Franjić S (2024) A Well-organized and Efficient Team Increases the Quality of Professional Activity. OSP Journal of Health Care and Medicine
5: HCM-5-147.

Corresponding author

Siniša Franjić

Independent Researcher, Bosnia and Herzegovina, sinisa.franjic@gmail.com

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