Pulmonary Nodules, Surgical Indication and Procedure Optimization

Da-Yong Lu

1School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, PR China

Hong-Ying Wu

1School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, PR China

Article Info
Author Info
Figures & Data


Technical advance of computerized tomography creates a new problem. A lot of adults (70-90%) show wide spread of pulmonary nodules. The therapeutic management development needs great progresses. This article provides new insights into this phenomenon.

Key Words

Pulmonary Nodules; Drug Treatment; Surgery


Technical advance of computerized tomography creates a new problem. A lot of adults (70-90%) show wide spread of pulmonary nodules. The therapeutic management development needs great progresses. There is a potential risk for human health by harmful consequences of pulmonary nodules. Further work is needed.


Many different therapeutic options can be practice for this clinical evidence. Surgery should be one of main therapeutic selections in the clinic. However, a lot of breakthroughs needs to be done. Surgical indication and procedure optimization should be focused.

  • Diagnostics (size, morphology, occurrence interval, growth rate and others)
  • Procedure (technology, schedules, costs and others)
  • Patient’s condition (age, physical condition, financial condition, long-term prognosis and co-morbidity)
  • Technology (small trauma, computer-aid, robots, regional or others)


Technical innovation for surgical procedure is a paramount issue in the clinic. Current norm of surgical procedure is unsuitable for most people. At present, most of pulmonary nodules are not fatal. According to our point of view, diagnostic and pathological study is more than surgery alone. It is proposed that this evidence is not 100% associated with malignancy. Human infection, mental health problems and underlying diseases could also be possible [1]. It can be practiced with drugs [2-4], traditional medicine [5-8] and personalized medicine may be useful [9-10]. At present, what kind of patients is suitable to surgery (surgical indication) is still a mystery.

Possible Pathogenesis

This is a new scenario for human pathology. To counteract this pathogenesis, related pathways are proposed;

Potential related pathogenesis and human reaction

  • Human viral or bacterial infection (human reaction to infection and immune system changes
  • Underlying disease (hypertension, diabetes or obesity) These kinds of human pathogenesis may relate with disease progresses and therapeutic outcomes
  • Abnormal immune status in patients (human immune systems are wide spread and can cause a lot of human pathological or physiological changes
  • Human mental disorders (a number of different mental diseases can cause changes in human organs). Data statistics and computation can determine disease progress
  • Food or drug toxicity (food or drug abuses can change human physiology and organ status)

In order to clarify these pathogenesis, drug targets and development should be implemented. Facing this new situation, new animal models will be created.

Future Direction

Future study for surgical indication and procedure optimization should be emphasized to promote medical science progression about pulmonary nodes. We hope that medical doctors can quickly determine the therapeutic otion when a patient needs further treatment.


  1. Lu DY., Wu HY (2022) Pulmonary Nodules, Surgery or other Medication. Progress in Medical Science, 6: 108.
  2. Lu DY., Lu TR., Chen EH., Xu B., Yarla NS., et al., (2017) Anticancer Drug Development, System updating and Global Participation. Current Drug Therapy 12: 37-45.
  3. Lu, DY., Lu, TR., Chen, EH., Yarla, NS., Xu, B., et al., (2018) Keep up the pace of Drug Development Evolution and Expenditure. Cancer Rep Rev 2: 165.
  4. Lu, DY., Lu, TR., (2020) Anticancer drug development, challenge and dilemma. Nursing & Care Open Access 7: 72-75.
  5. Lu, DY., Lu, TR., Yarla NS., Lu Y., Che JY., et al., (2020) Natural Drug Cancer Treatment Strategies from Herbal Medicine to Chemical or Biological Drug. Studies in Natural Products Chemistry 66: 91-115.
  6. Lu, DY., Lu, TR., (2019) Herbal medicine in New Era. Hospice Palliative Medicine International J 3:125-130.
  7. Agarwal N., Majee C., Chakraborthy GS (2012) Natural herbs as anticancer drugs. Int J PharmTech Res, 4:1142-1153.
  8. Pattannayak S (2021) Plants in healthcare: past, present and future. Explor Anim Med Res., 11: 140-144.
  9. Lu DY (2014) Personalized cancer chemotherapy, an effective way for enhancing outcomes in clinics Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier, UK.
  10. Lu, DY., Lu, TR., Che, JY., Shen, Y., Yarla, NS (2018) Individualized cancer therapy, future approaches Current Pharmacogenomics & Personalized Medicine.16: 156-163.
  11. Isik, A., Wysocki, AP., Memis, U., Sezgin, E., Yezhukova, A., et al., (2022) Factors associated with the occurrence and healing of umbilical pilonidal sinus: A rare clinical entity. Adv Skin Wound Care 35: 1-4. [Crossref].
  12. Kavousi, S., Akbarialiabad, H., Jalli, R (2022) The predictive association between radiological findings and lung cancer development in patients exposed to sulfur mustard gas: 4 decades follow up of 719 victims. BMC Pulmonary Medicine.
  13. Helyer, LK., Varnic, M., Le, LW., Leong, W., McCready D (2010) Obesity is a risk factor for developing post-operative lymphedema in breast cancer patients. Breast J., 16: 48-54. [Crossref].
  14. Lu, DY., Wu, HY., Xu, B (2021) Pathology study for human suicide. Health and Primary Care 5: 1-4.
  15. Isik, A., Soran, A., Grasi, A., Barry, N., Sezgin, E (2022) Lymphedema after sentinel lymph node biopsy: who is at risk? Lymphatic Res Biology 20: 160-163. [Crossref].
Editorial Information

Article Type

Research Article

Publication history

Received date: January 21, 2023
Accepted date: January 26, 2023
Published date: February 02, 2023


©2023 Yong LU D. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Yong Lu D, Hong-Ying W (2023) Pulmonary Nodules, Surgical Indication and Procedure Optimization. OSP Journal of Surgery 2: JOS-2-108

Corresponding author

Da Yong LU, PhD

Associate professor, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, China, ludayong@shu.edu.cn

No Figures