The Maxwell's vicious electromagnetic concept which can also be defined as electric magnetism occurred as a result of superficial and, exclusively, erroneous impression of the Great Theorist on the famous Oersted Experience. The fateful concept for physical science: "electrons moving in a conductor are direct sources of a magnetic field", was put forward by Maxwell in the absence of knowledge of real physical processes occurring in a conductor with an electric current. Paradoxical as it may see but this vicious concept, again thanks to the outward impression, has been accepted by the world physical community and dominates in physical science for almost 150 years, as an absolute truth. As the result the true sources of the magnetic field - real magnetic poles (magnetic charges) which are the structural components of atoms and substance, were “buried alive”. The detection by author of real magnetic charges, as well as true antielectrons in the structures of atoms and substance allowed him else in 2012 to formulate the concept of the World Physical Triad (WPT) according to which the existing Physical World consists of three fundamental phases: Matter, Antimatter and Energo-phase (Energo-medium). The Matter phase is formed by electric and magnetic fundamental particles with negative charge, and the Antimatter phase is formed by electric and magnetic particles with positive charge. The Energo-phase is the isotropic gas-like medium of ultrahigh density formed by its own fundamental particles the energions, which are spinless and massless. It is the energions that are the constituents of spinor fields that are induced by charged particles in the Energo-phase. The WPT concept (model) includes all electric and magnetic fundamental particles that really exist in the real World, as well as particles of the Energo-phase, i.e. energons. Therefore, WPT is a natural replacement for the existing Standard Model which does not contain either magnetic charges, either a energions. In the framework of the WPT concept, the author, for example, managed to establish the electromagnetic device of atomic shells, to reveal the electromagnetic vortex nature of the gravitational field, to find out the physical nature and physics of the formation of spinor fields, and also to show the viciousness of Maxwell’s electric magnetism and the fallacy of existing representations of the relict radiation and annihilation in a pair of particles - antiparticle. Given the high degree of compliance of the WPT model with real-world physics, the article presents the main provisions of the Law on its conservation, which guarantees the status quo of the existing humans habitat.
Magnetic Charges; Antielectrons; Physical Triad, Matter; Antimatter; Energo-Phase; Energions; Mass; Vortex Electromagnetic (gravitational) field; Dark Energy; Relict Radiation; Annihilation of Particles; Law Conservation of WPT
*The author is the doctor of physical and mathematical sciences. At present works as individual researcher.
Real Magnetic Charges and True Antielectrons in the Structures of Mass (in Atoms, Nucleons, Substance and Others)
The history of discovery and research of real magnetic charges is more than 100 years. The first person who experimentally observed magnetic charges was the remarkable Austrian physicist Felix Ehrenhaft who devoted more than 40 years to the discovery of these particles (from 1910 to 1951) . However, the results of experiments Ehrenhaft and his numerous followers did not allow determine the exact physical parameters of magnetic charges as well as their place in the structures of atoms and substance. In 1968-1971 the author of this article using magnetic scattering of neutrons in hexagonal ferrimagnets obtained data indicating on the possible participation of real magnetic charges in the compositions of atomic shells . Subsequent experimental and theoretical studies allowed him to establish the physical parameters of magnetic charges, as well as determine their place in the structures of atoms and substance [3 - 5].
Magnetic particles with a negative charge (g-), existing in the compositions of atomic shells, received the author's name magnetons. Magnetons in their physical parameters are magnetic analogs of electrons. Together with electrons and magnetons in the compositions of atomic shells there are their antiparticles, i.e. true antielectrons (e+) and antimagnetons (g+). The physical status of these antiparticles is discussed in detail later in this article. Thus, the shells of atoms are electromagnetic, and not purely electronic, as is now commonly believed.
The magnitude charges of electric and magnetic particles in atomic shells corresponds to the condition e = g. It is important to emphasize that the above-mentioned real magnetic poles (magnetic charges) have nothing in common with the known Dirac monopoles [6, 7], and also do not participate in such physical manifestations as the magnetricity . All these last theoretical constructions and manifestations in the formation of magnetic field used electrons and their currents, i.e. they are, in fact, electrified constructions based on Maxwell’s vicious electric magnetism [9, 10].
Note 1. The name magneton, as applied to a magnetic particle with a negative charge in compositions of atomic shells, is determined by the fact that this particle is a magnetic analogue of an electron. Therefore, according to the author, the combination of the names of the electric and magnetic particles in the composition of atomic shells as electron and magneton is logical. As for the known the Bohr magneton which is a measure of the so-called of magnetic moments, then with the introduction of real magnetic charges into basic physics this term should disappear. The concept of magnetic moments was introduced exclusively as a forced theoretical compensation for unrecognized magnetic charges that actually exist in atoms.
The existence of real magnetic charges, as well as true antielectrons in the structures of atoms and substance implies the realization in Nature of the electromagnetic device of all varieties of Physical Mass, for example, such as atoms, nucleons, positrons and neutrinos. According to the author's research the nucleons, i.e. protons and neutrons, as well as positrons and neutrinos are atomic-like electromagnetic structures with electromagnetic shells and corresponding nuclei. Using the popular language, nucleons can be called as small “atoms”, and the positron and neutrino, as very small “atoms” .
The main characteristic property of all varieties of the Mass is the ability to emit the gravitational field, which is formed as a result of the joint orbital currents of electric and magnetic charges and is a vortex electromagnetic field. In other words, everything that the gravitational field produces is Mass. As shown below in the article, Mass and, for example, Matter are completely different physical categories. By means of the term “Matter” in the existing physics, quite mistakenly, define substance or mass, and the synonym of the term “Antimatter” is “anti-substance". None of these definitions can relate to the real state of things. These issues are discussed in more detail in the text of the article.
As for individual spinor particles, both electric and magnetic, all of them are massless, since Mass is the result of their joint “activity” in the framework of atomic-shaped electromagnetic structural formations. For example, the electron is the massless material particle and no "divine bosons" can give it mass.
The Electromagnetic Vortex Nature of Gravitational Field, Ferrogravitation, Paragravitation and Gravitational Levitation
The shells of atoms, nucleons, positrons and neutrinos consisting of electric and magnetic charges are sources of the gravitational field (GP) which is the vortex electromagnetic field. The elementary source of the gravitational field is the electromagnetic quasi-particle which received the author's name S-Graviton, where S is from the word a source. This quasi-particle is the “assembly” of four real spinor particles which in the compositions of two coupled dipoles (electric and magnetic) rotate in antiphase in a single atomic orbit.
It is important to note that the author's model of S-graviton, formed by real spinor particles has no relation to existing concepts of gravitons in the form of electromagnetic field quanta, which are often used in theoretical studies of gravity.
The model representation of the vortex (orbital) electromagnetic current, i.e. S-Graviton, is written in the form of rot[Je – Jg], were Je and Jg are vectors of instantaneous currents density, respectively, of electric and magnetic charges in the composition of the EM-vortex (orbital) current. Then the equation of the process of formation of the gravitational field by means of S-Graviton has the form: k rot[Je – Jg] = rot[E – H], where E and H are the vectors of the instantaneous strength of electric and magnetic fields in composition of the vortex electromagnetic (gravitational) field, and k is the proportionality coefficient. The gravitational field corresponding to the vector condition <rot[E – H]> ≠ 0 by analogy with ferromagnetism can be called the ferrogravitational field (FGF), and the field corresponding to the condition <rot[E – H]> = 0 by analogy with paramagnetism can be called the paragravitational field (PGF).
Physical masses emitting the ferrogravitational field are repelled from the mass-sources of the paragravitational field, for example, from the Earth. This last effect discovered by the author of the article is called the Gravitational Levitation Effect (GL). It is gravitational levitation that is responsible for all convection processes, and also underlies the volatility of light gases atoms, for example, hydrogen. The effect of GL is very widespread in the plant and animal world (see, [12 - 14]).
It should be noted that it is the masses, which emit the ferrogravitational field and exhibit the effect of Gravitational levitation, are the so-called “negative masses”. The most well-known representative of "negative mass" is an atom of ordinary hydrogen or protium. The gravitational levitation is extremely beneficial effect that can be used in various fields of human practice. One example of the application of this effect is the technology of exit in space from the field of the gravity of the Earth without the use of jet thrust .
Matter, Antimatter and Energo-Phase (Energo-Medium) is Physical Triad of real World
Phases of the World Physical Triad
The results study of real magnetic charges as well as true antielectrons in atoms and substance allowed the author to formulate a concept of the world Physical Triad (PT) according to which the real World consists of three fundamental phases: Matter, Antimatter and Energo-phase (Energo-medium) [16, 17].
The Phase of Matter is formed by fundamental electric and magnetic particles with a negative charge, and Antimatter - by electric and magnetic particles with a positive charge. The antimatter particles make up half of all real spinor particles in the Physical World, and their absence in physical concepts is determined by the physics of their confinement in atoms and substance radically different from the confinement of material electrical particles, for example, electrons. It should also be emphasized that Antimatter as the global phase of real World is an aggregate all of positively charged fundamental particles, which should be referred to as antispinors. Antimatter, in principle, is not related to such a concept as anti-substance, which is mistakenly used is associated with this world phase in the existing theory. In addition, as noted above, the Matter and Mass are completely different physical categories.
The Energo-phase (Energo-medium) in mainly (unperturbed) state is the isotropic gas-like medium of ultrahigh density formed by its own fundamental particles, called by the author as the energions (with designation to as ε) which are spinless and massless. These particles are very small, move in all directions with speeds close to the speed of light and can be only of two types: left and right what associated with the corresponding direction of their own rotation. The ultrahigh mobility and the inertia-free of the energions allow spinor particles and masses to move relatively freely in the Energo-phase under the conditions of its ground (unperturbed) state.
Figure 1 shows the scheme of the world Physical Triad which includes three fundamental world phases: Matter, Antimatter and Energo-medium (Energo-phase). The fundamental particles that constitute the Phases of the Triad are indicated on the diagram, i.e. the spinors, antispinors and energions. In Fig. 1 marked and such derivatives from the phases of Triad, as the spinor fields and “Dark energy”. Outside of this scheme remain are condensates consisting of spinor particles of Matter and Antimatter, called Masses.
Figure 1. The Diagram of the World Physical Triad
The physical prototype of the Energo-phase and its particles the energions, the author considers known medium of “world” particles by G. Lesage's . By some external signs, the Energo-phase resembles the long-suffering Ether the particles of which are considered to be the building material for material particles. However, unlike Ether, the energiones are not reducible to either Matter or Antimatter since the Energy-phase exists in the rigid framework of the law of its own conservation. In some ways, the concept of Energo-medium is adjacent to such a well-known physic-theoretical concept as the Physical Vacuum.
Note 2. The name the Energo-phase or Energo-medium which the author proposes to assign to the third phase of the Physical Triad is a reflection of the global significance of this Phase in the energetics of the real World. The derivative from of the Energo-phase, called as “Dark Energy”, is responsible for the dynamics and, so-called, interactions of masses and particles, both on the scale of the cosmos and in the microworld. He also offers to harmonize with the names “Energo-phase the name of the fundamental particles constitute this Phase and assign them the name the energions, with a letter designation as epsilon (ε).
The concept of the Physical Triad, according to the author, is the more useful and informative theoretical tool than the existing Standard model. The arsenal of Physical Triad particles additionally includes such real spinor particles as magnetic poles (spinors and antispinors), as well as true electrical antispinors, for example, antielectrons. These real fundamental particles, which constitute ¾ of all charged particles that exist in the real World are absent in the Standard Model. It was the inclusion of these real particles in basic physical concepts that allowed the author to find out, for example, the true nature of the gravitational field, which is a vortex EM-field, and also to establish the physical essence of Mass, “Dark Matter” and “Dark Energy”. All this last physics presented in the framework of the Standard Model requires, according to the author, a serious modernization.
Nature of Dark Energy
According to the concept of the Physical Triad all the forces of direct action on particles and masses, which realized in real World, are the forces of so-called “Dark energy”, which manifest themselves as non-equilibrium states in the Energo-phase in form of local pressure regions Pε created by the energions (ε). The formations of “Dark Energy” are induced by spinor fields, i.e. fields of charged particles. However, the spinor fields themselves, including the gravitational fields are not essential in the sense of force interactions. They play, exclusively, the role of intermediaries that influence the state of the Energo-phase and stimulate the formation of “Dark Energy” in it. It is “Dark Energy” is the primary force factor that carries out the dynamics and the so-called interactions of masses and charged particles both in the scale of the Universe (the movement of galaxies, stars, planets and other objects), and in the microcosm, for example, the dynamics of spinor particles in Masses such as atoms, nucleons and others.
The Spinor Fields of Matter and Antimatter and the Essence of Concepts Spin and Spinority of Particles
The spinor particles, i.e. the charged particles that populate the phases of Matter and Antimatter induce electric and magnetic fields in the Energo-medium which can be either streams of the energions polarized along their linear and angular pulses (the fields of Matter), so and antistreams of these the energions (the fields of Antimatter). Material particles (spinors) in the process of formation fields of Matter play the role of time-of-flight selectors which “cut out” from spectrum of the energions a line that meets the parameters of its own rotation of “selector”. The latter parameters are determined by the magnitude (modulus) of the spin vector of spinor. Electrospinors emit the fluxes of the left energions (ε-), and magnetospinors - the fluxes of right energions (ε+). The antispinors, i.e. antimatter particles, in the role of antiselectors, carry out the depolarization of the energions in the flows of the corresponding fields of Matter, through their own fields - the fields of Antimatter. The result of the impact of the last fields on the fields of Matter is their depolarization or destruction.
It should be noted that the last action performed by fields of Antimatter is a very important process, which is responsible for maintaining a stable level of energy saturation of Energo-medium, which contributes to the implementation of the Law conservation of energy.
The formation of fields of Matter, i.e. fluxes of the polarized energions by spinors corresponds in the physics a negative charge of material particles, and the processes of depolarization (destruction) of such flows by antispinors correspond to the positive charge of Antimatter particles. In their physical characteristics the fields of Antimatter are anti-fields in relation to the fields of Matter.
It is convenient to consider the mutual state of the fields Matter and Antimatter on the example of the electric dipole shown in Figure 2. Here, the spinor (electron) in the role of the selector “cuts out” from the spectrum particles of the Energo-phase the stream of the left energions which polarized according to their momenta. This stream of left-handed particles is a generally known electric field.
Figure 2. The Fields of Matter and Antimatter emitted by the Spinor and Antispinor in the composition of the Electric Dipole. Ssp and Sasp are Spin Vectors, respectively, of a Spinor (electron) and Antispiner (antielectron), and Nε – the density particles of the Energо-phase (energions) in the flow of the Electric Field of Matter. The value 1/Nε in Fig. 2 is defined as the anti-flow of the Energions and refers to the field of Antimatter which is emitted by the Antispinor, in this case, an Anti-electron. This, the last field is the anti-field to the field of Matter or the Anti-Stream in relation to the flow of the Energions emitted by the Spinors
The well-known representative of the electrical spinors is an electron. As for the true anti-electrons, i.e. real electric particles of Antimatter, then instead of these real antispinors, theoretical surrogates such as Dirac holes or electron vacancies were introduced into the physical theory [20, 21]. In addition, the existing physical theory, erroneously, uses the positron as the official antielectron. The author’s research showed that positron cannot be antiparticle to electron since is a kind of mass, i.e. has atomic-like electromagnetic structure . It is the erroneous representation of positron as a true anti-electron and led the physical theory to such an erroneous and harmful concept as the annihilation of particles in pairs of the particle-antiparticle. The explanation of this important statement is given below in section 5.
As for the real magnetic spinors and antispinors they, at all, had no place within the framework of the existing physical theory. These real magnetic particles in the compositions of masses (atoms, matter, etc.) were replaced by such surrogates as the magnetic moments of electrical spinors and, above all, electrons.
In his publications, starting in 2001, the author invariably emphasized that the main reason that closed the timely recognition of magnetic particles as well as true anti-electrons is the special physics of a confinement these real particles in the structures of the Mass which is radically different from a confinement electric spinors, for example, such as electrons [22, 23].
Namely the special conditions of confinement of magnetic charges as well as true anti-electrons in substance and serious problems with their detection played with physical science and, in particular, with the theory of magnetism, a very bad "joke" that was realized in physics in the form of Maxwell's vicious electrical magnetism. Magnetism in the existing theory is considered, exclusively, as the product of the electricity, and by the elementary acts of magnetic manifestations, instead of real magnetic poles, declared magnetic moments of material electrical particles and, above all, electrons.
The concept of the world physical triad, presented in the articles of the author, incorporating real magnetic poles (magnetic charges), makes it possible to clarify the physical essence of such important concepts as “spin” and “spinority” of particles. Of course, the fundamental process that determines the concept of "spin" of particles is their mechanical rotation.
However, the notion the "spinority" of particle accompanying the term “spin of particle”, besides its own rotation, includes the ability to interact with particles of the Energo-phase, i.e. with the energions, with the formation of fields Matter and Antimatter. That is why the term “spinority” of particles is synonymous with such term as the charge of particles. It is important to note that the axial vector corresponding to the proper rotation of the particle what is not accompanied by the formation of a spinor field, is not the spin- vector. The last statement concerns, exclusively, the energons, i.e. Energo-phase particles whose rotation is not accompanied by the formation of their own physical fields. As noted above, these particles, unlike particles of Matter and Antimatter, are spinless, and therefore have no charge.
The Relict Radiation is Sign of the Stable Weakly Perturbed State of the Energo-Phase
The so-called the relict radiation, discovered in 1965 by A. Penzias and R. Wilson , was interpreted by physical theory as a “message” from the phase of the “fireball” that immediately followed the “big bang”. This “message” reached us after ~ 13 milliard years from the moment of “dispatch”. It is believed that if the interpretation noted above corresponds to reality, then the cosmology of any stable states of the Universe moves into the background.
"Relict radiation” is a wave electromagnetic background with waves in the millimeter and centimeter ranges. This radiation is characterized by a high degree of isotropy and, in addition, has a Planck spectrum, which coincides with the spectrum of the radiation of the absolutely black body with a temperature of 2.73 ° K.
In the author’s book , as well as in this article (see sections 3.2 and 3.3), it is shown that the fields of spinor particles induce corresponding manifestations in the Energo-phase in the form of “Dark Energy” formations which are of the amplified copies of the initial (spinor) radiation. It is these wave formations of “Dark Energy” in the Energo-phase which propagating in space over long distances and determine of the cosmic background of referred to as “relict radiation”. Thus, to ensure the effect, manifested in the form of so-called relict radiation, the “fireball” and the big bang are completely unnecessary. For this, the Energo-phase (Energo-medium) and stable sources of spinor radiation are sufficient. Moreover, in the publication of the author  it is shown that in our Universe there has never been a “big bang”, nor, moreover, a “fireball”.
The noted book also shows that in the light of the WPT concept, version of the expanding Universe was the result of the erroneous perception by E. Hubble, back in the 1920s, of the manifestation of the cosmological redshift the frequency photons which he interpreted as the Doppler frequency shift of light waves. The author has shown that the frequency processes of photons are determined exclusively by intra-photon physics and not affiliated with of any spatially wave formations in the environment, and the shifts of the photon frequency have no relation to the Doppler effect. Thus, the so-called the redshift of the photon frequency, under the conditions of the translational motion of their sources, are exactly the same, both in the case of the movement of the source to the observer so and when moving at the same speed from the observer.
In his publications, the author tried to explain that the frequency shift of photons under the conditions of translational motion of their sources is always red. As for the so-called violet frequency shift of photons, then this is a clear sign of the rotational dynamics of photon source.
Thus, under conditions of translational motion of photon sources, the shift of the photon frequency is always red, both in the case of a source moving towards an observer and when moving at the same speed from the observer.
The Fallacy of Concept the Particles Annihilation in the Pairs of Particle-Antiparticle
The well-known notion of annihilation in pairs of the particle - anti-particle was initiated by the results of the interaction of an electron with a positron. However, the author’s research showed that a positron cannot be the antiparticle to electron since is the variety of mass, i.e. has the electromagnetic atomic-like structure. The true anti-electron “sits” in the structure of the positron as its nucleus and determines known the charge of the positron. The shell of positron, which is electromagnetic, is made up of electric and magnetic quarks the charges of which are substantially less than the charges of particles in atomic shells . When an electron comes into contact with a positron, the electron combines with a true anti-electron, i.e. with the nucleus of the positron, with the formation of a tightly compressed spinor pair. The gamma quanta observed in the marked process are evidence of the process of annihilation, but not of an electron with an antielectron, but, exclusively, of the electromagnetic shell of a positron. As for the electron and the anti-electron, as a result of their dense pressing in the marked spinor pair, the so-called spin closure. In this case, the spinor pair does not manifest itself by spinor fields, and it turns out to be practically undetectable. Namely the superficial impression of the observed process of interaction of an electron with a positron and led to the introduction of the erroneous concept of their annihilation into the theory.
It should be added that the vicious concept of “annihilation” noted above was extended and to such the pair as proton and antiproton. At the contact of these last masses, the union takes place, all the same, of an electron and an antielectron, which “sat” as nuclei in these structures. The gamma-quanta observed in this case indicate the fact of the annihilation, but exclusively, of the EM-shells of the proton and antiproton. It is important to add that the electromagnetic shells of the proton, antiproton, and positron form electric and magnetic quarks, which, in turn, are subdivided into material and antimaterial particles.
Note that the spin-closure effect, noted in an electron-antielectron pair, should also take place in pairs of corresponding quarks, after the destruction of the shells of a positron, proton and antiproton. It is the latter circumstance, as well as the small values of the charges of quarks, that may be the reasons complicating their experimental detection. Quark charges, according to the author’s research, can be 1/2 e, g or 1/4 e, g, where e and g are the electric and magnetic charges of the particles that make up the atomic shells . It should be added that due to the action of the Law of conservation of the World Physical Triad proposed by the author (see below section 6), quarks, like electrons, must remain unchanged in any cataclysms. Therefore, with a certain zeal, they can be discovered.
The Law of Conservation of Physical Triad as Condition for Stability of the Existing Physical World
The physics of particles and fields presented above and existing within the framework of Physical Triad gives an idea of the general physical device of the real World. Particles of Matter and Antimatter exist in two stable states: Physical mass, i.e. atomic-like electromagnetic structures and bispinors or tightly pressed dipoles. The latter state is the ground state of spinor particles. As for the Energo-phase particles, i.e. the energions, they cannot form any bound states either among themselves or with spinor particles. The main appointment of the Energo-phase is to ensure stable energetics as well as the implementation of the dynamics and particle and mass interactions in the real world. The Energo-phase manifests its energy potential through the forces of the “Dark Energy”.
The Law Conservation of Physical Triad organically includes such well-known Laws as the Law of Conservation of Energy, the Law of Conservation of Impulse, the Law of Conservation of Electric Charge, and possibly some others. As for the last Law, so according to the results of the research of Ehrenhaft, the present author and others, it should be referred to as the Law of Conservation of Electric and Magnetic Charge or, simply, of the Law Conservation charge of the fundamental particles.
Of course, the conditions of this Law do not exclude the realization in Nature of various local cataclysms, for example, such as supernova explosions, collisions of large cosmic bodies and even galaxies. However, all these cataclysms relate exclusively to transformations of Masses, such as substance, atoms, nucleons and others. As for the fundamental particles that form the phases of WPT so they within the framework of this Law, exist in the conditions of their hard physical preservation. The preservation of fundamental particles within the framework of the noted Law implies the obligatory reproduction of the masses, after their destruction in cataclysms, within the framework of the same physical principles that occurred during their primary education.
Maxwell’s vicious electromagnetic concept or so-called electric magnetism, in the author’s opinion, a kind of “cancerous education” in the “body” of fundamental physical science, the metastases of which hit almost all of its fields and directions. It was EM closed all conditions for approximation of physical science to real magnetic charges, which make up half of all spinor particles, i.e. charged fundamental charged particles in the real World. If we take into account that such real particles as true antielectrons are also unrecognized in existing physics, then the entire available arsenal of physical theory includes only electric particles of Matter, i.e. the fourth part from all fundamental particles existing in the real World. Of course, all of the noted unrecognized particles were replaced by well-known theoretical surrogates (magnetic moments and Dirac holes), however, this did not save physics from a huge number of serious misconceptions.
Conducting global “chemotherapy” of a modern physical theory, with the purpose of eliminating the numerous misconceptions generated by Maxwell’s vicious concept, according to the author, is the most urgent task for today. All this needs to be done, and as soon as possible because after 10 - 15 years even robots will laugh at us.
The author expresses deep gratitude to Elena Sizova and Vitaly Sizov who for many years helped and supported the author, which largely contributed to the implementation of his research activities.
The author is grateful to the technical experts: A. Davydov, N. Koshelev, A. Lomakin, E. Moiseenkov and S. Staritsin who took an active part in conducting the main part experiments related to the detection and study of magnetic charges.
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